Saturday, 15 January 2011

Population questions 2006

What is the meaning of the term ‘natural increase’ of population? (2marks)
Birth rate minus death rate / difference between birth rate and death rate /
Birth rate is more than death rate

Using Figure 1, describe the growth of population in LEDCs and MEDCs. (4marks)

Must use Figure 1

Using one or more examples, explain why the population growth of LEDCs is expected to fall. (6marks)

Level 1 Basic (1-2 marks)
Simple statements
Birth control / improved education / careers for women/ better healthcare.
If write about MEDC, Max Level 1

Level 2 Clear (3-4 marks)
Linked statements but little elaboration
Birth control leads to a decline in the birth rate/ careers for women mean that women marry later/ improved health reduces infant mortality so less need to have many children.
If wrong country for one child policy e.g. Japan, remains at Level 2.

Level 3 Detailed (5-6 marks)
Linked and elaborated statements referring to examples

It is estimated that there will be no population growth in China by 2070, South East Asia by 2090 and Latin America by 2100. People who are better educated get better jobs and careers and so do not want to be burdened with large families. Better-educated women are more likely to understand how to use contraceptives effectively / Contraceptives are more readily available and therefore there is less unprotected sex and so fewer children are born. As more careers become available for women they put off having children until later and so there is less opportunity for them to have large families. Improved health care reduces the infant mortality rate. People are therefore more certain that fewer children will die, and so they do not keep trying for children as an insurance to ensure some survive to look after them in old

Credit China one child policy.

Describe the advantages and disadvantages to a country or region of receiving immigrants. (6marks)
Level Marking Must refer to the advantages and disadvantages to a country or region not to the people. Advantages (A), Disadvantages (D)

Level 1 Basic (1-2 marks) Simple statements
Advantages - More people to work, greater variety of foods, more people to pay taxes, bring certain skills
Disadvantages - racial tension, competition for jobs

Level 2 Clear (3-4 marks) Elaborated or linked statements
Can reach top of Level 2 if only dealing with advantages or disadvantages
Advantages: Immigrants are prepared to work at low paid jobs that the native population refuse, introduction of takeaways widens the diet of the receiving country. Many immigrants have skills and can be doctors or nurses in a country where there is a shortage.
Disadvantages: There may be tension between different racial groups.

Level 3 Detailed (5-6 marks)
Elaborated and linked statements covering both advantages and
Advantages: Eastern Europeans migrating to the UK may be prepared to take lower paid work – working in factories, on farms, cleaners catering or care assistants.. These workers pay tax which contributes to the economy.
Disadvantages: Some workers work in the informal sector, working for cash and do not pay tax. They do however use UK health and education services which add to the government’s costs.